papers from the:Biological Research Center (1982-88)
papers from the:MPI fuer Experientelle Medizin (1988-92)
papers & patents from: Ribonetics & Innovir (1992-99)
papers & patents from: develogen
papers & patents from: rockefeller
papers & patents from: uni-bonn


1. Ludwig, J.
A New Route to Nucleoside 5´-Triphosphates
Acta Biochim. et Biophys. Acad. Sci. Hung. 1981, 16, 131-133
Citations for original Yoshikawa variant
Citations for "proton sponge" variant
"standard method" citations

detailed experimental description


2. Ludwig, J.; Tomasz, J.
Preparation of 5-Fluoro- and 5-Alkyl-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-Phosphates free of 3'-Phosphates via Phosphorodiamidates
Synthesis 1982, 32-34

3. Tomasz, J.; Ludwig, J.
Instability of the Phosphodiester-Amide Interribonucleotide Bond in Neutral Aqueous Solution
Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1984, 3, 45-60
10 Citations

4. Kariko, K.; Ludwig, J.
n-Decyl-NHpppA2'p5'A2'p5'A a Phosphatase-resistant Active pppA2'p5'A2'p5'A Analog
BBRC 1985, 128, 695-698
22 Citations

5. Tomasz, J.; Bottka, S.; Ludwig, J.; Pelczer, I.
Adenosine Cyclic 3',5'-Phosphoramidate and N,N-Dimethylphosphoramidate: Synthesis via Symmetrical and Mixed Anhydrides and Hydrolysis
Phosphorus and Sulfur 1987, 30, 597-600

6. Ludwig, J.
A Simple One Flask Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-Triphosphates from Unprotected Nucleosides via Nucleoside 5'-Cyclotriphosphates
Bruzik, K.S; Stec,W.J., Eds. Biophosphates and Their Analogues; Synthesis, Metabolism and Activity Elsevier: Amsterdam 1987; pp 201-204 download pdf

7. Ludwig, J.; Eckstein, F.
Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-O-(1-Thiotriphosphates), 5'-Triphosphates and 2'3'-Cyclophosphothioates Using 2-Chloro-4H-1,3,2 benzodioxaphosphorin-4-one
J.Org.Chem. 1989, 54, 631-635
147 Citations

8. Ludwig, J.; Eckstein, F.
Synthesis of 5´-Dithiotriphosphate Derivatives of 3'-Deoxy- 3'-Azidothymidine
Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1991, 10, 663-665

9. Ludwig, J.; Eckstein,F.
Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-O-(1,3-Dithiotriphosphates) and Nucleoside 5'-O-(1,1-Dithiotriphosphates) J.Org.Chem. 1991, 56, 1777-1783
18 Citations

10. Ludwig, J.; Eckstein,F.
Stereospecific Synthesis of Guanosine 5'-O-(1,2-Dithiotriphosphates)
J.Org.Chem. 1991, 56, 5860-5865

3 Citations

11. Benseler, F. ; Fu , D.J. ; Ludwig, J.; McLaughlin , L.W.
Hammerhead-like Molecules Containing Non -Nucleoside Linkers Are Active RNA catalysts.
J.Am.Chem.Soc . 1993, 115, 8483-8484
37 Citations

12. Aurup,H.; Tuschl,T.; Benseler,F.; Ludwig,J.; Eckstein,F.
Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 2'-amino 2'-deoxycytidines: Thermal stability and chemical reactivity
Nucleic Acids Research 1994, 22 , 20-24
62 Citations

13. Dunkel, M.; Reither ,V.; Ebel, S.; Ludwig,J.
Synthesis of 2'-C-Difluoromethyl Substituted Nucleoside Analogs As Ribonucleoside Replacements in Hammerhead Ribozymes
Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1995,14 , 799-801

14. Desjardins, J.P.; Sproat ,B.S.; Beijer, B.; Blaschke,M.; Dunkel ,M.; Gerdes, W.; Ludwig,J.; Reiter, V.; Rupp ,T.; Iversen, P.L.
Pharmacokinetics of a synthetic, chemically modified hammerhead ribozyme against the rat cytochrome P-450 3A2 mRNA after single intravenous injections. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther . 1996,278 , 1419-1427

15. Ludwig,J.; Blaschke,M.; Sproat, B. S.
Extending the cleavage rules for the hammerhead ribozyme: mutating adenosine15.1 to inosine 15.1 changes the cleavage site specificity from N 16.2U16.1H17 to N 16.2C16.1H17
Nucleic Acids Research 1998, 26 , 2279-2285
39 Citations
download from MEDLINE

16. Lyngstadaas, S.P.; Sproat, B. S.; Blaschke,M.; Ludwig,J.; Rupp,T.; Prydz,H.P.
In vivo Knockout of a Tissue-Specific Gene by Synthetic Ribozymes
Methods in Molecular Medicine 1998, 11 , 371-387

17. Ludwig,J.; Blaschke,M.; Dunkel, M.; Beier ,B.; Ross,K.; Sproat, B. S.
Structural Requirements at the 15.1-16.1 Position of the Hammerhead Ribozyme Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1999 , 18 , 1519-20

18. Salmi,P.; Sproat, B.S.; Ludwig,J.; Hale, R.; Avery,N.; Kela, J.; Wahlestedt,C.
Dopamine D2 receptor ribozyme inhibits quinpirole induced stereotypy in rats Eur. Journal of Pharmacology 2000, 388 R1-R2

19. Caselmann, W.H., Serwe, M., Lehmann, T., Ludwig, J., Sproat, B.S. and Engels, J.W..
Design, delivery and efficacy testing to therapeutic nucleic acids used to inhibit hepatitis C virus gene expression in vitro and in vivo
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 6(5), 626-629, 2000.

20. Xu, Z. , Liu, H. Wennefors, C.K. ; Dobrikov, M. I.; Ludwig, J.; .Shaw,B.R..
A Novel synthesis of alfa-P-Modified Nucleoside Diphosphates with Ethylediamine
J.Am.Chem.Soc . 2005, 127, 16764-16765