back to publ. 7

147. Boyle,N.A., Fagan,P., Brooks,J.L.,Prhavc,M., Lambert, J. and Cook,P.D.
2005. 2 ',3 '-dideoxynucleoside 5 '-beta,gamma-(difluoromethylene) triphosphates with alpha-P-thio or alpha-P-seleno modifications: Synthesis and their inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic acids 24: 1651-1664

146. Adelfinskaya, O., Davisson, V.J. and Bergstrom, D.E
2005. Synthesis and structural analysis of oxadiazole carboxamide deoxyribonucleoside analogs Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic acids 45: 1919-1945

145. Carrasco, N., Caton-Williams, J., Brandt, G., Wang, S. and Huang Z.
2006. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phosphoroselenoate RNA by using Adenosine 5 (alfa-P-Seleno) triphosphate Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45: 94-97

144. Kawai, R.,Kimoto, M.,Ikeda, S.,Mitsui,T.,Masayuki E., Yokoyama, S.and Hirao I.
2005. Site-Specific Fluorescent Labeling of RNA Molecules by Specific Transcription Using Unnatural Base Pairs J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127:(49) 17286 - 17295

143. Moriyama,K. ,Kimoto,M., Mitsui,T., Yokoyama, S., Hirao,I.
2005. Site-specific biotinylation of RNA molecules by transcription using unnatural base pairs Nucleic Acids Reseearch 33:(15) e129

142. Xu, Z. , Liu, H. Wennefors, C.K. ; Dobrikov, M. I.; Ludwig, J.; .Shaw,B.R
2005.A Novel synthesis of alfa-P-Modified Nucleoside Diphosphates with Ethylediamine J.Am.Chem.Soc .127:16764-16765

141. Misiura, K., Szymanowicz, D. and Stec, W.J.
2005. Synthesis of nucleoside alpha-thiotriphosphates via an oxathiaphospholane approach Organic Letters 7:2217-2220

140. Kato, Y . ,Minakawa, N., Komatsu, Y. ,Kamiya, H., Ogawa, H., Harashima, H. , and Matsuda, A .
2005. New NTP analogs: the synthesis of 4 '-thioUTP and 4 '-thioCTP and their utility for SELEX Nucleic Acids Research 7:2942-2951

139. Zou, K.Y. , Horhota, A., Yu, B., Szostak, J. W. , McLaughlin, L.W.
2005. Synthesis of alpha-L-threofuranosyl nucleoside triphosphates (tNTPs) Organic Letters 7:1485-1487

138.Crey-Desbiolles, C. , Berthet, N. , Kotera, M. , Dumy, P.
2005. Hybridization properties and enzymatic replication of oligonucleotides containing the photocleavable 7-nitroindole base analog Nucleic Acids Research 33:1532-1543

137. Ping, L. , Shaw, B.R.
2004. Convenient synthesis of nucleoside borane diphosphate analogues: Deoxy- and ribonucleoside 5 '-P-alpha-boranodiphosphates Journal of Organic Chemistry 126:7051-7057

136.Vaught, J. D., Dewey, T., Eaton, B. E.
2004. T7 RNA polymerase transcription with 5-position modified UTP derivatives Journal of the American Chemical Society 126:11231-11237

135.Kossen, K., Vaish, N. K., Jadhav, V. R., Pasko, C., Wang, H., Jenison, R., McSwiggen, J. A., Polisky, B., Seiwert, S. D.
2004. High-throughput ribozyme-based assays for detection of viral nucleic acids Chemistry & Biology 11:807-815

134.Wu, W. D., Meyers, C. L. F., Borch, R. F.
2004. A novel method for the preparation of nucleoside triphosphates from activated nucleoside phosphoramidates Organic Letters 6:2257-2260

133.Abramova, T. V., Bakharev, P. A., Vasilyeva, S. V., Silnikov, V. N..
2004. Synthesis of morpholine nucleoside triphosphates Tetrahedron Letters 45:4361-4364

132.Cadicamo, C. D., Courtieu, J., Deng, H., Meddour, A., O'Hagan, D.
2004. Enzymatic fluorination in Streptomyces cattleya takes place with an inversion of configuration consistent with an S(N)2 reaction mechanism Chembiochem 5(2):685-690

131.Hendrickson, C. L., Devine, K. G., Benner, S. A.
2004. Probing minor groove recognition contacts by DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases using 3-deaza-2 '-deoxyadenosine Nucleic Acids Research. 32(2): 2241-2250

130. Mironov, V. F., Gubaidullin, A. T., Burnaeva, L. M., Litvinov, I. A., Ivkova, G. A., Romanov, S. V., Zyablikova, T. A., Konovalov, A. I., Konovalova, I. V..
2004 Reactions of 2-alkoxy-4-oxo-5,6-benzo-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes with imines. Synthesis and steric structure of 6,7-benzo-1,4,2-oxazaphosphepine derivativess Russian Journal of General Chemistry.74: 32-47 .

129.Shaw, B. R., Dobrikov, M., Wang, X., Wan, J., He, K. Z., Lin, J. L., Li, P., Rait, V., Sergueeva, Z. A., Sergueev, D.
2003. Reading, writing, and modulating genetic information with boranophosphate mimics of nucleotides Ann Rep of the New York Acad of Sci.(1002):12-29.

128.Silverman, S. K.
2004. Practical and general synthesis of 5 '-adenylated RNA (5 '-AppRNA). Rna-a Publication of the Rna Society. 10(4):731-746.

127.Pavey, J. B. J., A. J. Lawrence, I. A. O'Neil, S. Vortler, and R. Cosstick.
2004. Synthesis and transcription studies on 5 '-triphosphates derived from 2 '-C-branched-uridines: 2 '-homouridine-5 '-triphosphate is a substrate for T7 RNA polymerase. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2(6):869-875.

126.Roychowdhury, A., H. Illangkoon, C. L. Hendrickson, and S. A. Benner.
2004. 2 '-deoxycytidines carrying amino and thiol functionality: Synthesis and incorporation by vent (exo(-)) polymerase. Organic Letters. 6(4):489-492.

125.Sismour, A. M., S. Lutz, J. H. Park, M. J. Lutz, P. L. Boyer, S. H. Hughes, and S. A. Benner.
2004. PCR amplification of DNA containing non-standard base pairs by variants of reverse transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1. Nucleic Acids Research. 32(2):728-735.

124 Carrasco, N., Huang Z.
2004. Enzymatic Synthesis of Phosphoroselenoate DNA Using Thymidine 5'-(alfa-P- seleno)triphosphate and DNA Polymerase for X-ray Crystallography via MAD. Journal of the American Chemical Society 126(2):448-449.

123.Marx, A., I. Detmer, J. Gaster, and D. Summerer.
2004. Probing DNA polymerase function with synthetic nucleotides. Synthesis(1):1-14.

122Wang, Y. M., and S. K. Silverman.
2003. Characterization of deoxyribozymes that synthesize branched RNA. Biochemistry. 42(51):15252-15263.

121.Antonov, K. V., R. S. Esipov, A. I. Gurevich, D. V. Chuvikovsky, G. V. Mikulinskaya, S. A. Feofanov, and A. I. Miroshnikov.
2003. Chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of nucleoside 5 '-alpha-thiotriphosphates. Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. 29(6):560-565.

120.Harris, V. H., C. L. Smith, W. J. Cummins, A. L. Hamilton, D. P. Hornby, and D. M. Williams.
2003. Recognition of base-pairing by DNA polymerases during nucleotide incorporation: the properties of the mutagenic nucleotide dPTP alpha S. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 1(12):2070-2074.

119.Egron, D., C. Perigaud, G. Gosselin, A. M. Aubertin, A. Faraj, M. Selouane, D. Postel, and C. Len.
2003. 1,3-dihydrobenzolclfuran nucleoside analogues: Additional studies of the thymine derivative. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 13(24):4473-4475.

118.Schoetzau, T., J. Langner, E. Moyroud, I. Roehl, S. Vonhoff, and S. Klussmann.
2003. Aminomodified nucleobases: Functionalized nucleoside triphosphates applicable for SELEX.
Bioconjugate Chemistry.

117.Barai, V. N., A. I. Zinchenko, S. V. Kvach, O. I. Titovich, E. B. Rubinova, E. N. Kalinichenko, and I. A. Mikhailopulo.
2003. Enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside-5'-O-(1-thiophosphates) and (S-p)-adenosine-5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate). <br>Helvetica Chimica Acta. 86(8):2827-2832.

116.Held, H. A., A. Roychowdhury, and S. A. Benner.
2003. C-5 modified nucleosides: Direct insertion of alkynyl-thio functionality in pyrimidines.
Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids.

115.Harris, V. H., C. L. Smith, W. J. Cummins, A. L. Hamilton, D. P. Hornby, and D. M. Williams.
2003. Recognition of base-pairing by DNA polymerases during nucleotide incorporation: the properties of the mutagenic nucleotide dPTP alpha S.
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry.

114 . Xu KY, Min JM , Zhang LH

Synthesis of isonucleoside 5 '-triphosphates
2003 ; 33 1905-1910

113 . Wu WD , Bergstrom DE ,Davisson VJ

A combination chemical and enzymatic approach for the preparation of azole carboxamide nucleoside triphosphate
J. Org Chem
2003 ; 68 3860-3865

112 . Gallois-Montbrun S, Chen YX, Dutartre H, Sophys M, Morera S, Guerreiro C, Schneider B, Mulard L, Janin J, Veron M, Deville-Bonne D, Canard B

Structural analysis of the activation of ribavirin analogs by NDP kinase: Comparison with other ribavirin targets
Molecular Pharmacology
2003 ; 63 538-546

111 . Sekine M , Ushioda M , Wada T., Seio K

Synthesis of TMG-capped RNA-DNA chimeric oligonucleotides
Tetrahedron Lett.
2003 ; 44 1703-1707

110 . Held H A , Benner S A

Challenging artificial genetic systems:thymidine analogs with 5-position sulfur functionality
Nucleic Acids Res
2002 ; 30 3857-3869

109. Soukup J K, Minakawa N , Matsuda A , Strobel S A

Identification of A-Minor Tertiary Interactions within a Bacterial Group I Intron Active Site by 3-Deazaadenosine Interference Mapping
2002 ; 41 10426-10438

108. Proske D, Gilch S, Wopfner F , Schaetzl H M, Winnacker E-L, Famulok M

Prion-Protein-Specific Aptamer Reduces PrP Sc Formation
2002 ; 3 717-725

107. Klumpp K. , Hooker L. ,Handa B.

Influenza virus endoribonuclease
Methods in Enzymology
2001 ; 342 451-466

106. Krynetskaia, N F , Feng, J Y , Krynetski, E Y, Garcia, J V, Panetta, J C , Anderson, K S , Evans, W E

Deoxythioguanosine triphosphate impairs HIV replication: a new mechanism for an old drug
Faseb Journal
2001 ; 15 1902-1908

105. Schwarzer K, Wojczewski C, Engels JW

Synthesis of 3 '-thioamido-modified 3 '-deoxythymidine-5 '- triphosphates and their use as chain terminators in sanger-DNA sequencing
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
2001 ; 20 (4-7) 879-882

104. Schneider B, Meyer P, Sarfati S, et al
Activation of anti-reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogs by nucleoside diphosphate kinase: Improvement by alpha- boranophosphate substitution Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
2001 ; 20 (4-7) 297-306

103. Matulic-Adamic J, Daniher AT, Karpeisky A, Haeberli P, Sweedler D, Beigelman L

Synthesis of modified nucleoside 5 '-triphosphates for in vitro selection of catalytic nucleic acids Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
2001 ; 20 (4-7) 1113-1115

102. Lin JL, Porter KW, Shaw BR

Synthesis and properties of novel triphosphate analogues: Ribonucleoside and, deoxyribonucleoside (alpha-P-borano, alpha- P-thio)triphosphates
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
2001 ; 20 (4-7) 1019-1023

101. Lebedev AV, Koukhareva, II, Beck T, Vaghefi MM

Preparation of oligodeoxynucleotide 5 '-triphosphates using solid support approach Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
2001 ; 20 (4-7) 1403-1409

100. Cieslak J, Sobkowski M, Jankowska J, et al.

Nucleoside phosphate analogues of biological interest, and their synthesis via aryl nucleoside H-phosphonates as intermediates Acta Biochimica Polonica
2001 ; 48 (2) 429-442

99. He KZ, Shaw BR
Synthesis and separation of diastereomers of uridine 2 ',3 '- cyclic boranophosphate Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2001 ; 11 (5) 615-617

98. Oyelere, A.K. and Strobel, S.A.
Biochemical detection of cytidine protonation within RNA, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 122(42), 10259-10267, 2000.

97. Lin, J.L. and Shaw, B.R.
Synthesis of a novel triphosphate analogue: nucleoside alpha-P- borano, alpha-P-thiotriphosphate, Chemical Communications(21), 2115-2116, 2000.

96. Chen, X.R., Grammer, J., Cooke, R., Pate, E. and Yount, R.G.
Synthesis and characterization of novel spin-labeled photoaffinity nonnucleoside analogues of ATP as structural and EPR probes for myosin, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 11(5), 725-733, 2000.

95. Trevisiol, E., Defrancq, E., Lhomme, J., Laayoun, A. and Cros, P.
Synthesis of methylketone containing nucleoside triphosphates for RNA labelling, Tetrahedron, 56(35), 6501-6510, 2000.

94. Fischer, B., Shahar, L., Chulkin, A., Boyer, J.L., Harden, K.T., Gendron, F.P., Beaudoin, A.R., Chapal, J., Hillaire-Buys, D. and Petit, P.
2-thioether-5 '-O-(1-thiotriphosphate)-adenosine derivatives: New insulin secretagogues acting through P2Y-receptors, Israel Medical Association Journal, 2, 92-98, 2000.

93. Vortler, L.C.S. and Eckstein, F.,
Phosphorothioate modification of RNA for stereochemical and interference analyses, in Rna-Ligand Interactions (Methods in Enzymology), Vol. 317, 2000, 74-91.

92. Burgess, K. and Cook, D.
Syntheses of nucleoside triphosphates, Chemical Reviews, 100(6), 2047-2059, 2000.

91. Wojczewski, C., Schwarzer, K. and Engels, J.W.
Synthesis of 3 '-thioamido-modified 3 '-deoxythymidine 5 '- triphosphates by regioselective thionation and their use as chain terminators in DNA sequencing, Helvetica Chimica Acta, 83(6), 1268-1277, 2000.

90. Matulic-Adamic, J., Daniher, A.T., Karpeisky, A., Haeberli, P., Sweedler, D. and Beigelman, L.
Functionalized nucleoside 5 '-triphosphates for in vitro selection of new catalytic ribonucleic acids, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 10(11), 1299-1302, 2000.

89. Schoetzau, T., Koert, U. and Engels, J.W.
3 '-C-branched thymidine 5 '-triphosphates: Synthesis, application, and coupling with near-infrared oxazine fluorescent dye, Synthesis-Stuttgart(5), 707-713, 2000.

88. Trevisiol, E., Defrancq, E., Lhomme, J., Laayoun, A. and Cros, P.
Synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates that contain an aminooxy function for "post-amplification labelling", European Journal of Organic Chemistry(1), 211-217, 2000.

87. Schoetzau, T., Klingel, S., Wartbichler, R., Koert, U. and Engels, J.W.
Synthesis of a fluorescent derivative of 6-N-[N-(6- aminohexyl)carbamoyl)-2 ',3 '-dideoxyadenosine 5 '-triphosphate for detection of nucleic acids, Journal of the Chemical Society-Perkin Transactions 1, 9, 1411-1415, 2000.

86. Jankowska, J., Wenska, M., Popenda, M., Stawinski, J. and Kraszewski, A.
A new, efficient entry to nucleoside 2 ',3 '-O,O- cyclophosphorothioates, Tetrahedron Letters, 41(13), 2227-2229, 2000.

85. Shaw, B.R., Sergueev, D., He, K.Z., Porter, K., Summers, J., Sergueeva, Z. and Rait, V.,
Boranophosphate backbone: a mimic of phosphodiesters, phosphorothioates, and methyl phosphonates, in Antisense Technology, (Methods in Enzymology), Vol. 313, 2000, 226-257.

84 Graham, S.M. and Pope, S.C.
Selective phosphitylation of the primary hydroxyl group in unprotected carbohydrates and nucleosides, Organic Letters, 1(5), 733-736, 1999.

83. Wojczewski, C. and Engels, J.W.
Synthesis of 3 '-S-(2-aminoethylthio)-3 '-deoxythymidine-5 '- triphosphates, Synthesis-Stuttgart(1), 149-153, 2000.

82. Sakash, J.B., Tsen, A. and Kantrowitz, E.R.
The use of nucleotide analogs to evaluate the mechanism of the heterotropic response of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase, Protein Science, 9(1), 53-63, 2000.

81. Battersby, T.R., Ang, D.N., Burgstaller, P., Jurczyk, S.C., Bowser, M.T., Buchanan, D.D., Kennedy, R.T. and Benner, S.A.
Quantitative analysis of receptors for adenosine nucleotides obtained via in vitro selection from a library incorporating a cationic nucleotide analog, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121(42), 9781-9789, 1999.

80. Fischer, B., Chulkin, A., Boyer, J.L., Harden, K.T., Gendron, F.P., Beaudoin, A.R., Chapal, J., Hillaire-Buys, D. and Petit, P.
2-thioether 5 '-O-(1-thiotriphosphate)adenosine derivatives as new insulin secretagogues acting through P2Y-receptors, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 42(18), 3636-3646, 1999.

79. Stolze, K., Koert, U., Klingel, S., Sagner, G., Wartbichler, B. and Engels, J.W.
Synthesis of 3 '-sugar- and base-modified nucleotides and their application as potent chain terminators in DNA sequencing, Helvetica Chimica Acta, 82(9), 1311-1323, 1999.

78. Lutz, S., Burgstaller, P. and Benner, S.A.
An in vitro screening technique for DNA polymerases that can incorporate modified nucleotides. Pseudothymidine as a substrate for thermostable polymerases, Nucleic Acids Research, 27(13), 2792-2798, 1999.

77. Jurczyk, S.C., Kodra, J.T., Park, J.H., Benner, S.A. and Battersby, T.R.
Synthesis of 2 '-deoxyisoguanosine 5 '-triphosphate and 2 '- deoxy-5-methylisocytidine 5 '-triphosphate, Helvetica Chimica Acta, 82(7), 1005-1015, 1999.

76. Trevisiol, E., Defrancq, E., Lhomme, J., Laayoun, A., Hoang, A., Beseme, F. and Cros, P.
Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside triphosphates incorporating an oxyamino function for "post-amplification labelling", Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 18(4-5), 979-980, 1999.

75. He, K.Z., Porter, K.W., Hasan, A., Briley, J.D. and Shaw, B.R.
Synthesis of 5-substituted 2 '-deoxycytidine 5 '-(alpha-P- borano)triphosphates, their incorporation into DNA and effects on exonuclease, Nucleic Acids Research, 27(8), 1788-1794, 1999.

74. Lutz, S. and Benner, S.A.
Simple one-pot synthesis of a 2 '-tritium labeled C- deoxynucleoside, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 9(5), 723-726, 1999.

73. Shi, J.X., McAtee, J.J., Wirtz, S.S., Tharnish, P., Juodawlkis, A., Liotta, D.C. and Schinazi, R.F.
Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2 ',3 '-didehydro-2 ',3 '-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine (D4FC) analogues: Discovery of carbocyclic nucleoside triphosphates with potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 42(5), 859-867, 1999.

72. Martinez, C.I., Thoresen, L.H., Gibbs, R.A. and Burgess, K.
An allylic/acyclic adenosine nucleoside triphosphate for termination of DNA synthesis by DNA template-dependent polymerases, Nucleic Acids Research, 27(5), 1271-1274, 1999.

71. Welch, M.B. and Burgess, K.
Synthesis of fluorescent, photolabile 3 '-O-protected nucleoside triphosphates for the base addition sequencing scheme, Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 18(2), 197-201, 1999.

70. Lerma, J.G.G., Schinazi, R.F., Juodawlkis, A.S., Soriano, V., Lin, Y.L., Tatti, K., Rimland, D., Folks, T.M. and Heneine, W.
A rapid non-culture-based assay for clinical monitoring of phenotypic resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to lamivudine (3TC), Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 43(2), 264-270, 1999.

69. Rezende, M.C. and Boza, S.S.
A facile route to 9-phosphorylated neuraminic acid derivatives, Synthetic Communications, 28(23), 4393-4400, 1998.

68. Vyle, J.S., Williams, N.H. and Grasby, J.A.
A novel solid support for synthesis of 2 ',3 '-cyclic phosphate terminated oligonucleotides, Tetrahedron Letters, 39(43), 7975-7978, 1998.

67. He, K.H., Hasan, A., Krzyzanowska, B. and Shaw, B.R.
Synthesis and separation of diastereomers of ribonucleoside 5 '-(alpha-P-borano)triphosphates, Journal of Organic Chemistry, 63(17), 5769-5773, 1998.

66. Nguyen, H.K., Bonfils, E., Auffray, P., Costaglioli, P., Schmitt, P., Asseline, U., Durand, M., Maurizot, J.C., Dupret, D. and Thuong, N.T.
The stability of duplexes involving AT and/or G(4Et)C base pairs is not dependent on their AT/G(4Et)C ratio content. Implication for DNA sequencing by hybridization, Nucleic Acids Research, 26(18), 4249-4258, 1998.

65. Kazantsev, A.V. and Pace, N.R.
Identification by modification-interference of purine N-7 and ribose 2 '-OH groups critical for catalysis by bacterial ribonuclease P, Rna-a Publication of the Rna Society, 4(8), 937-947, 1998.

64. Zelenko, O., Gallagher, J., Xu, Y. and Sigman, D.S.
Chemical nuclease activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-copper. Isotopic probes of mechanism, Inorganic Chemistry, 37(9), 2198-2204, 1998.

63. Krzyzanowska, B.K., He, K.Z., Hasan, A. and Shaw, B.R.
A convenient synthesis of 2 '-deoxyribonucleoside 5 '-(alpha-P- borano)triphosphates, Tetrahedron, 54(20), 5119-5128, 1998.

62. Jung, M.E. and Xu, Y.
Efficient synthesis of specifically deuterated nucleosides: Preparation of 4 '-deuteriothymidine, Heterocycles, 47(1), 349-356, 1998.

61. Martinez, C.I., Ansari, M.A., Gibbs, R. and Burgess, K.
Acyclic nucleoside triphosphate analogs as terminators in biocatalytic DNA replication, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 7(23), 3013-3016, 1997.

60. Wojczewski, C., Faulstich, K. and Engels, J.W.
Synthesis and application of 3'-amino-dye-terminators for DNA sequencing, Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 16(5-6), 751-754, 1997.

59. Cullis, P.M., Maxwell, A. and Weiner, D.P.
Exploiting nucleotide thiophosphates to probe mechanistic aspects of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase, Biochemistry, 36(20), 6059-6068, 1997.

58. Voegel, J.J. and Benner, S.A.
Synthesis and characterization of non-standard nucleosides and nucleotides bearing the acceptor-donor-donor pyrimidine analog 6-amino-3-methylpyrazin-2(1H)-one, Helvetica Chimica Acta, 79(7), 1863-1880, 1996.

57. Carroll, S.S., Benseler, F. and Olsen, D.B.,
Preparation and use of synthetic oligoribonucleotides as tools for study of viral polymerases, in Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins, Vol. 275, 1996, 365-382.

56. Cech, D., Schoetzau, T., Holletz, T. and Zehl, A.
New approaches toward the synthesis of non-radioactively labelled nucleoside triphosphates as terminators for DNA sequencing, Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 61, S297-S300, 1996.

55. Lesnikowski, Z.J., Juodawlkis, A.S., Lloyd, R.M., Chu, C.K. and Schinazi, R.F.
Synthesis and anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity of triphosphates of penciclovir and beta-D-dioxolane-guanine, Phosphorus Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements, 111(1-4), 715-715, 1996.

54. Schoetzau, T., Holletz, T. and Cech, D.
A facile solid phase synthesis of 2'- and 3'-aminonucleoside triphosphates, Chemical Communications(3), 387-388, 1996.

53. Cherrington, J.M., Fuller, M.D., Mulato, A.S., Allen, S.J.W., Kunder, S.C., Ussery, M.A., Lesnikowski, Z., Schinazi, R.F., Sommadossi, J.P. and Chen, M.S.
Comparative kinetic analyses of interaction of inhibitors with rauscher murine leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 40(5), 1270-1273, 1996.

52. Lutz, M.J., Held, H.A., Hottiger, M., Hubscher, U. and Benner, S.A.
Differential discrimination of DNA polymerases for variants of the non-standard nucleobase pair between xanthosine and 2,4- diaminopyrimidine, two components of an expanded genetic alphabet, Nucleic Acids Research, 24(7), 1308-1313, 1996.

51. Heaton, P.A. and Eckstein, F.
Diastereomeric specificity of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase, Nucleic Acids Research, 24(5), 850-853, 1996.

50. Olsen, D.B., Benseler, F., Cole, J.L., Stahlhut, M.W., Dempski, R.E., Darke, P.L. and Kuo, L.C.
Elucidation of basic mechanistic and kinetic properties of influenza endonuclease using chemically synthesized RNAs, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(13), 7435-7439, 1996.

49. Bailey, J.M. and Nelson, K.A.
Nucleoside spiroxiranes as suicide inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus, Biochemical Society Transactions, 23(4), S619-S619, 1995.

48. Malakhov, D.V., Semizarov, D.G. and Yasko, M.V.
Synthesis and Biochemical-Properties of Phosphonyl Acyclic Analogs of 2'-Deoxyadenosine Nucleotides, Bioorganicheskaya Khimiya, 21(7), 539-544, 1995.

47. Focher, F., Maga, G., Bendiscioli, A., Capobianco, W., Colonna, F., Garbesi, A. and Spadari, S.
Stereospecificity of Human Dna-Polymerase-Alpha, Dna- Polymerase-Beta, Dna-Polymerase-Gamma, Dna-Polymerase-Delta and Dna-Polymerase-Epsilon, Hiv-Reverse Transcriptase, Hsv-1 Dna- Polymerase, Calf Thymus Terminal Transferase and Escherichia- Coli Dna-Polymerase-I in Recognizing D-Thymidine and L- Thymidine 5'-Triphosphate As Substrate, Nucleic Acids Research, 23(15), 2840-2847, 1995.

46. Semizarov, D.G., Yasko, M.V., Kukhanova, M.K. and Krayevsky, A.A.
New Nucleotide Inhibitors of Human Dna-Polymerase-Alpha, Molecular Biology, 29(3), 404-411, 1995.

45. Brownlee, G.G., Fodor, E., Pritlove, D.C., Gould, K.G. and Dalluge, J.J.
Solid-Phase Synthesis of 5'-Diphosphorylated Oligoribonucleotides and Their Conversion to Capped M(7)Gppp- Oligoribonucleotides For Use As Primers For Influenza-a Virus- Rna Polymerase in-Vitro, Nucleic Acids Research, 23(14), 2641-2647, 1995.

44. Dewey, T.M., Mundt, A.A., Crouch, G.J., Zyzniewski, M.C. and Eaton, B.E.
New Uridine Derivatives For Systematic Evolution of Rna Ligands By Exponential Enrichment, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 117(32), 8474-8475, 1995.

43. Eaton, B.E. and Pieken, W.A.
Ribonucleosides and Rna, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 64, 837-863, 1995.

42. Horlacher, J., Hottiger, M., Podust, V.N., Hubscher, U. and Benner, S.A.
Recognition By Viral and Cellular Dna-Polymerases of Nucleosides Bearing Bases With Nonstandard Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(14), 6329-6333, 1995.

41. Fodor, E., Pritlove, D.C. and Brownlee, G.G.
Characterization of the Rna-Fork Model of Virion Rna in the Initiation of Transcription in Influenza-a Virus, Journal of Virology, 69(7), 4012-4019, 1995.

40. Puri, N., Hunsch, S., Sund, C., Ugi, I. and Chattopadhyaya, J.
The Synthesis and Reactivity of New 2-(N,N-Diisopropylamino)-3- Methylsulfonyl-1,3,2-Benzoxazaphospholes - the Utility of the 5-Chloro Analog in the One-Pot Synthesis of Oligothiophosphates - [Ap(S)Ppa, Ap(S)Pppa, Ppp5'A2'P(S)5'a, M(7)Gp(S)Ppa, Ap(S)Pppp, Ap(S)Pp], Tetrahedron, 51(10), 2991-3014, 1995.

39. Zamyatina, A.Y., Bushnev, A.S. and Shvets, V.I.
Phosphite Triester and H-Phosphonate Approaches in the Synthesis of Phospholipids, Bioorganicheskaya Khimiya, 20(12), 1253-1296, 1994.

38. Aurup, H., Siebert, A., Benseler, F., Williams, D. and Eckstein, F.
Translation of 2'-Modified Messenger-Rna in-Vitro and in-Vivo, Nucleic Acids Research, 22(23), 4963-4968, 1994.

37. Eliasson, R., Pontis, E., Eckstein, F. and Reichard, P.
Interactions of 2'-Modified Azidoanalogs and Haloanalogs of Deoxycytidine 5'-Triphosphate With the Anaerobic Ribonucleotide Reductase of Escherichia-Coli, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269(42), 26116-26120, 1994.

36. Okruszek, A., Olesiak, M. and Balzarini, J.
The Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-O-(1,1-Dithiotriphosphates), Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 37(22), 3850-3854, 1994.

35. Arabshahi, A. and Frey, P.A.
A Simplified Procedure For Synthesizing Nucleoside 1- Thiotriphosphates - Datp(Alpha)S, Dgtp(Alpha)S, Utp-Alpha-S, and Dttp(Alpha)S, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 204(1), 150-155, 1994.

34. Quant, S., Wechselberger, R.W., Wolter, M.A., Worner, K.H., Schell, P., Engels, J.W., Griesinger, C. and Schwalbe, H.
Chemical Synthesis of C-13-Labeled Monomers For the Solid-Phase and Template Controlled Enzymatic-Synthesis of Dna and Rna Oligomers, Tetrahedron Letters, 35(36), 6649-6652, 1994.

33. Lowe, G. and Thelin, M.
The Stereochemical Course of Substitution of Sulfur By Oxygen Nucleophiles in 5-Membered Cyclic Phosphorothioates, Journal of the Chemical Society-Chemical Communications(17), 1947-1948, 1994.

32. Herrlein, M.K., Konrad, R.E., Engels, J.W., Holletz, T. and Cech, D.
3'-Amino-Modified Nucleotides Useful As Potent Chain Terminators For Current Dna-Sequencing Methods, Helvetica Chimica Acta, 77(2), 586-596, 1994.

31. Holletz, T., Moller, U., Knaf, A., Reinhardt, R. and Cech, D.
Synthesis and Application of a New Fluorescein Derivative For Fluorescent Labeling of Oligonucleotides and As a Novel Tool For Nonradioactive Dna-Sequencing, Liebigs Annalen Der Chemie(10), 1051-1056, 1993.

30. Ettner, N., Haak, U., Niederweis, M. and Hillen, W.
Synthesis of 8-Bromo-and 8-Azido-2'-Deoxyadenosine-5'-O-(1- Thiotriphosphate), Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 12(7), 757-771, 1993.

29. Olsen, D.B., Wunderlich, G., Uy, A. and Eckstein, F.
Direct Sequencing of Polymerase Chain-Reaction Products, Methods in Enzymology, 218, 79-92, 1993.

28. Olsen, D.B., Sayers, J.R. and Eckstein, F.
Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Single-Stranded and Double- Stranded Dna By Phosphorothioate Approach, Methods in Enzymology, 217, 189-217, 1993.

27. Bebenek, K., Thomas, D.C., Roberts, J.D., Eckstein, F. and Kunkel, T.A.
Effects of 3'-Azido-3'-Deoxythymidine Metabolites On Simian Virus-40 Origin-Dependent Replication and Heteroduplex Repair in Hela-Cell Extracts, Molecular Pharmacology, 43(1), 57-63, 1993.

26. Aurup, H., Williams, D.M. and Eckstein, F.
2'-Fluoro-2'-Deoxynucleoside and 2'-Amino-2'-Deoxynucleoside 5'-Triphosphates As Substrates For T7 Rna-Polymerase, Biochemistry, 31(40), 9636-9641, 1992.

25. Cullis, P.M., Maxwell, A. and Weiner, D.P.
Energy Coupling in Dna Gyrase - a Thermodynamic Limit to the Extent of Dna Supercoiling, Biochemistry, 31(40), 9642-9646, 1992.

24. Austermann, S., Kruhoffer, M. and Grosse, F.
Inhibition of Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus Type-1 Reverse- Transcriptase By 3'-Blocked Oligonucleotide Primers, Biochemical Pharmacology, 43(12), 2581-2589, 1992.

23. Lee, L.G., Connell, C.R., Woo, S.L., Cheng, R.D., McArdle, B.F., Fuller, C.W., Halloran, N.D. and Wilson, R.K.
Dna Sequencing With Dye-Labeled Terminators and T7 Dna- Polymerase - Effect of Dyes and Dntps On Incorporation of Dye- Terminators and Probability Analysis of Termination Fragments, Nucleic Acids Research, 20(10), 2471-2483, 1992.

22. Gaur, R.K., Sproat, B.S. and Krupp, G.
Novel Solid-Phase Synthesis of 2'-O-Methylribonucleoside 5'- Triphosphates and Their Alpha-Thio Analogs, Tetrahedron Letters, 33(23), 3301-3304, 1992.

21. Nickel, W., Austermann, S., Bialek, G. and Grosse, F.
Interactions of Azidothymidine Triphosphate With the Cellular Dna-Polymerases Alpha, Delta, and Epsilon and With Dna Primase, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267(2), 848-854, 1992.

20. Ludwig, J. and Eckstein, F.
Stereospecific Synthesis of Guanosine 5'-0-(1,2- Dithiotriphosphates), Journal of Organic Chemistry, 56(20), 5860-5865, 1991.

19. Schatz, D., Leberman, R. and Eckstein, F.
Interaction of Escherichia-Coli Transfer Rnaser With Its Cognate Aminoacyl-Transfer Rna-Synthetase As Determined By Footprinting With Phosphorothioate-Containing Transfer-Rna Transcripts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88(14), 6132-6136, 1991.

18. Ludwig, J. and Eckstein, F.
Synthesis of 5'-Dithiotriphosphate Derivatives of 3'-Deoxy 3'- Azidothymidine, Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 10(1-3), 663-664, 1991.

17. Koizumi, M. and Ohtsuka, E.
Effects of Phosphorothioate and 2-Amino Groups in Hammerhead Ribozymes On Cleavage Rates and Mg2+ Binding, Biochemistry, 30(21), 5145-5150, 1991.

16. Frank, B.L., Worth, L., Christner, D.F., Kozarich, J.W., Stubbe, J., Kappen, L.S. and Goldberg, I.H.
Isotope Effects On the Sequence-Specific Cleavage of Dna By Neocarzinostatin - Kinetic Partitioning Between 4'-Hydrogen and 5'-Hydrogen Abstraction At Unique Thymidine Sites, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 113(6), 2271-2275, 1991.

15. Slim, G. and Gait, M.J.
Configurationally Defined Phosphorothioate-Containing Oligoribonucleotides in the Study of the Mechanism of Cleavage of Hammerhead Ribozymes, Nucleic Acids Research, 19(6), 1183-1188, 1991.

14. Ueda, T., Tohda, H., Chikazumi, N., Eckstein, F. and Watanabe, K.
Phosphorothioate-Containing Rnas Show Messenger-Rna Activity in the Prokaryotic Translation Systems Invitro, Nucleic Acids Research, 19(3), 547-552, 1991.

13. Ludwig, J. and Eckstein, F.
Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-O-(1,3-Dithiotriphosphates) and 5'- O-(1,1-Dithiotriphosphates), Journal of Organic Chemistry, 56(5), 1777-1783, 1991.

12. Heidenreich, O., Kruhoffer, M., Grosse, F. and Eckstein, F.
Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Reverse- Transcriptase By 3'-Azidothymidine Triphosphate, European Journal of Biochemistry, 192(3), 621-625, 1990.

11. Zhu, Z., Schinazi, R.F., Chu, C.K., Williams, G.J., Colby, C.B. and Sommadossi, J.P.
Cellular-Metabolism of 3'-Azido-2',3'-Dideoxyuridine With Formation of 5'-O-Diphosphohexose Derivatives By Previously Unrecognized Metabolic Pathways For 2'-Deoxyuridine Analogs, Molecular Pharmacology, 38(6), 929-938, 1990.

10. Kvasyuk, E.I., Kulak, T.I. and Mikhailopulo, I.A.
Synthesis of Phosphorothioate Analogs of Oligoriboadenylates Using Salicylchlorophosphite, Bioorganicheskaya Khimiya, 16(11), 1537-1544, 1990.

9. Olsen, D.B., Kotzorek, G. and Eckstein, F.
Investigation of the Inhibitory Role of Phosphorothioate Internucleotidic Linkages On the Catalytic Activity of the Restriction Endonuclease Ecorv, Biochemistry, 29(41), 9546-9551, 1990.

8. Sayers, J.R. and Eckstein, F.
Properties of Overexpressed Phage-T5 D15 Exonuclease - Similarities With Escherichia-Coli Dna-Polymerase-I 5'-3' Exonuclease, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265(30), 18311-18317, 1990.

7. Olsen, D.B., Kotzorek, G., Sayers, J.R. and Eckstein, F.
Inhibition of the Restriction Endonuclease Banii Using Modified Dna Substrates - Determination of Phosphate Residues Critical For the Formation of an Active Enzyme-Dna Complex, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265(24), 14389-14394, 1990.

6. Vantol, H., Buzayan, J.M., Feldstein, P.A., Eckstein, F. and Bruening, G.
2 Autolytic Processing Reactions of a Satellite Rna Proceed With Inversion of Configuration, Nucleic Acids Research, 18(8), 1971-1975, 1990.

5. Olsen, D.B. and Eckstein, F.
High-Efficiency Oligonucleotide-Directed Plasmid Mutagenesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87(4), 1451-1455, 1990.

4. Garcia, G.A., Leatherbarrow, R.J., Eckstein, F. and Fersht, A.R.
Metal-Ion Dependence of Phosphorothioate Atp Analogs in the Bacillus-Stearothermophilus Tyrosyl-Transfer Rna-Synthetase Reaction, Biochemistry, 29(6), 1643-1648, 1990.

3. Mautz, D.S., Davisson, V.J. and Poulter, C.D.
Synthesis of O-Geranyl (1-Thio)Diphosphate, Tetrahedron Letters, 30(52), 7333-7336, 1989.

2. Olsen, D.B. and Eckstein, F.
Incomplete Primer Extension During Invitro Dna Amplification Catalyzed By Taq Polymerase - Exploitation For Dna Sequencing, Nucleic Acids Research, 17(23), 9613-9620, 1989.

1. Hopkins, S., Furman, P.A. and Painter, G.R.
Investigation of the Stereochemical Course of Dna-Synthesis Catalyzed By Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Reverse- Transcriptase, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 163(1), 106-110, 1989.